# Formulas and Functions

## Formulas and Functions

The distinguishing feature of a spreadsheet program such as Excel

is that it allows you to create mathematical formulas and execute

functions. Otherwise, it is not much more than a large table for

displaying text. This page will show you how to create these calculations.

Formulas

Formulas are entered in the worksheet cell and must begin with

an equal sign "=". The formula then includes the addresses

of the cells whose values will be manipulated with appropriate operands

placed in between. After the formula is typed into the cell, the

calculation executes immediately and the formula itself is visible

in the formula bar. See the example below to view the formula for

calculating the sub total for a number of textbooks. The formula

multiplies the quantity and price of each textbook and adds the

subtotal for each book.

Linking Worksheets

You may want to use the value from a cell in another worksheet

within the same workbook in a formula. For example, the value of

cell A1 in the current worksheet and cell A2 in the second worksheet

can be added using the format "sheetname!celladdress".

The formula for this example would be "=A1+Sheet2!A2"

where the value of cell A1 in the current worksheet is added to

the value of cell A2 in the worksheet named "Sheet2".

Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Referencing

Calling cells by just their column and row labels (such as "A1")

is called

referencing and it is copied from one cell to another, Excel does

not create an exact copy of the formula. It will change cell addresses

relative to the row and column they are moved to. For example, if

a simple addition formula in cell C1 "=(A1+B1)" is copied

to cell C2, the formula would change to "=(A2+B2)" to

reflect the new row. To prevent this change, cells must be called

by

dollar signs "$" within the cell addresses in the formula.

Continuing the previous example, the formula in cell C1 would read

"=($A$1+$B$1)" if the value of cell C2 should be the sum

of cells A1 and B1. Both the column and row of both cells are absolute

and will not change when copied.

be used where only the row OR column fixed. For example, in the

formula "=(A$1+$B2)", the row of cell A1 is fixed and

the column of cell B2 is fixed.

Basic Functions

Functions can be a more efficient way of performing mathematical

operations than formulas. For example, if you wanted to add the

values of cells D1 through D10, you would type the formula "=D1+D2+D3+D4+D5+D6+D7+D8+D9+D10".

A shorter way would be to use the SUM function and simply type "=SUM(D1:D10)".

Several other functions and examples are given in the table below:

Function Wizard

View all functions available in Excel by using the Function Wizard.

Autosum

Use the Autosum function to add the contents of a cluster of adjacent

cells.

is that it allows you to create mathematical formulas and execute

functions. Otherwise, it is not much more than a large table for

displaying text. This page will show you how to create these calculations.

Formulas

Formulas are entered in the worksheet cell and must begin with

an equal sign "=". The formula then includes the addresses

of the cells whose values will be manipulated with appropriate operands

placed in between. After the formula is typed into the cell, the

calculation executes immediately and the formula itself is visible

in the formula bar. See the example below to view the formula for

calculating the sub total for a number of textbooks. The formula

multiplies the quantity and price of each textbook and adds the

subtotal for each book.

Linking Worksheets

You may want to use the value from a cell in another worksheet

within the same workbook in a formula. For example, the value of

cell A1 in the current worksheet and cell A2 in the second worksheet

can be added using the format "sheetname!celladdress".

The formula for this example would be "=A1+Sheet2!A2"

where the value of cell A1 in the current worksheet is added to

the value of cell A2 in the worksheet named "Sheet2".

Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Referencing

Calling cells by just their column and row labels (such as "A1")

is called

**relative referencing**. When a formula contains relativereferencing and it is copied from one cell to another, Excel does

not create an exact copy of the formula. It will change cell addresses

relative to the row and column they are moved to. For example, if

a simple addition formula in cell C1 "=(A1+B1)" is copied

to cell C2, the formula would change to "=(A2+B2)" to

reflect the new row. To prevent this change, cells must be called

by

**absolute referencing**and this is accomplished by placingdollar signs "$" within the cell addresses in the formula.

Continuing the previous example, the formula in cell C1 would read

"=($A$1+$B$1)" if the value of cell C2 should be the sum

of cells A1 and B1. Both the column and row of both cells are absolute

and will not change when copied.

**Mixed referencing**can alsobe used where only the row OR column fixed. For example, in the

formula "=(A$1+$B2)", the row of cell A1 is fixed and

the column of cell B2 is fixed.

Basic Functions

Functions can be a more efficient way of performing mathematical

operations than formulas. For example, if you wanted to add the

values of cells D1 through D10, you would type the formula "=D1+D2+D3+D4+D5+D6+D7+D8+D9+D10".

A shorter way would be to use the SUM function and simply type "=SUM(D1:D10)".

Several other functions and examples are given in the table below:

Function | Example | Description |

SUM | =SUM(A1:100) | finds the sum of cells A1 through A100 |

AVERAGE | =AVERAGE(B1:B10) | finds the average of cells B1 through B10 |

MAX | =MAX(C1:C100) | returns the highest number from cells C1 through C100 |

MIN | =MIN(D1:D100) | returns the lowest number from cells D1 through D100 |

SQRT | =SQRT(D10) | finds the square root of the value in cell D10 |

TODAY | =TODAY() | returns the current date (leave the parentheses empty) |

Function Wizard

View all functions available in Excel by using the Function Wizard.

- Activate the cell where the function will be placed and click

the**Function Wizard**button on the standard toolbar. - From the
**Paste Function**dialog box, browse through the

functions by clicking in the**Function category**menu on

the left and select the function from the**Function name**

choices on the right. As each function name is highlighted a description

and example of use is provided below the two boxes. - Click
**OK**to select a function. - The next window allows you to choose the cells that will be

included in the function. In the example below, cells B4 and C4

were automatically selected for the sum function by Excel. The

cell values {2, 3} are located to the right of the**Number 1**

field where the cell addresses are listed. If another set of cells,

such as B5 and C5, needed to be added to the function, those cells

would be added in the format "B5:C5" to the**Number**field.

2 - Click
**OK**when all the cells for the function have been

selected.

Autosum

Use the Autosum function to add the contents of a cluster of adjacent

cells.

- Select the cell that the sum will appear in that is outside

the cluster of cells whose values will be added. Cell C2 was used

in this example. - Click the
**Autosum**button (Greek letter sigma) on the

standard toolbar. - Highlight the group of cells that will be summed (cells A2 through

B2 in this example). - Press the
**ENTER**key on the keyboard or click the green

check mark button on the formula bar .

_________________

Similar topics

» MILK FOR 2 MONTH OLD-allergic to formula/soy

» 3 month old has tested HIGHLY allergic to formulas. HELP!

» 3 month old has tested HIGHLY allergic to formulas. HELP!

Page

**1**of**1****Permissions in this forum:**

**cannot**reply to topics in this forum

Sun Aug 02, 2009 4:45 pm by

Admin» Keyboard Shortcuts for Access 2000

Tue Jul 21, 2009 7:35 pm by mr_LoL

» Keyboard Shortcuts for Word 2000

Tue Jul 21, 2009 7:33 pm by mr_LoL

» NETWORKING CLASS NO.1

Tue Jul 21, 2009 7:24 pm by mr_LoL

» Eham Kalmaat

Sat Jul 18, 2009 11:08 pm by mr_LoL

» Dil Laga Kar

Sat Jul 18, 2009 11:07 pm by mr_LoL

» Customizing Excel

Sat Jul 18, 2009 11:06 pm by mr_LoL

» HTML Lesson 6

Sat Jul 18, 2009 11:05 pm by mr_LoL

» DAROOD PAK Ki Kasrt

Tue Jul 07, 2009 5:13 pm by

SHAKIL ILYAS» 3 Baatin MUSt Read

Tue Jul 07, 2009 5:12 pm by

SHAKIL ILYAS